What Is Yoga?

Well, in the midst of finding and preparing to move into a new apartment, I have certainly neglected to keep up with my blogging. What a wonderful lesson for me to ponder at a later time, when I’m not going coo coo bananas out of my mind with stress. In the meantime, I’ve decided to politely decline my ego’s offer to beat myself up mercilessly for not being committed / hardworking / passionate / professional / [fill-in-the-blank] enough. No thank you, Ego! I’ll do better next time, and that’s all I can do. But thank you for your concern.

This weekend is a bit crowded. In the next four days, I:

  • celebrate my 4th wedding anniversary
  • turn 30
  • graduate from my 200 hour yoga teacher training
  • pack up my whole apartment
  • and move from Queens to Brooklyn.

And let’s not forget that I’m knee-deep in season 2 of House of Cards, which needs to be squeezed in here and there, obviously. It’ll all get done, I just have to take it one breath at a time.

Source: Jack Affleck, Affleck Photos

Source: Jack Affleck, Affleck Photos

I’m feeling especially proud as I enter into this last weekend of yoga teacher training, and I thought I’d share some thoughts about it today. Below are two short essays, both entitled What Is Yoga?, that I wrote over the course of my training. The first was written just as I embarked on the program, nearly five months ago:

My earliest understanding of yoga was that it involved a system of physical postures which, when practiced regularly, were shown to benefit both the mind and the body. In other words, I thought yoga was all about asana.

A few years back, when I began practicing regularly, my conception of yoga shifted to include a subtle spiritual practice involving improved communion – or union – between mind and body.

By the grace of my teachers, I’ve come to see yoga as an all-inclusive life philosophy, a spiritual and physical practice, a way of approaching life that seeks to quiet, still, or master the fluctuations and compulsions of the mind.

 The beauty of this definition is that it includes my former understandings of what yoga is and then expands upon them. Yes, yoga is about postures (asana) and control of breath (pranayama), but it is also about universal codes of behavior (yama), self-purification by discipline (niyama), the conquering of sense-driven conditioning (pratyahara), and varying levels of concentration, meditation, and consciousness (dharana, dhyana, and samadhi).

 My early impression that yoga strengthens the mind-body connection is also reflected throughout the canon of yogic learning. For instance, the concept of ahimsa, or non-violence, applies to the self as well as to others. Therefore, yoga teaches us to avoid harshly criticizing our bodies and to work toward accepting the truth (satya) of our physical form with loving acceptance. Dedication to asana under the influence of aparigraha (non-possessiveness) and santosa (non-comparing) can help us to take pride in our physical abilities without judging or identifying with them. In other words, it encourages self-worth without the trappings of pride. It cultivates a more harmonious relationship with The Self – body and mind.

These revelations about yoga have cracked my world wide open and created so much room for new study and growth (svadhyaya). I’m sure my definition of yoga will continue to evolve, but I’m grateful for the understanding I have now.

The next essay is something I scribbled down today, and though it’s vulnerable, messy, and impulsively written, I wanted so deeply to share it with you here.

When last I wrote a short essay entitled What Is Yoga? I spent a great deal of time integrating all the fancy new Sanskrit words I was learning and crafting calculated paragraphs to please my teachers. The whole thing was rather intellectualized, rather academic… rather hollow.

And so this time around, I’ll be opening no reference books, nor reviewing my notes to make sure what I’m saying matches up with past lectures, nor even spending much time re-reading and editing this final product. This one comes from the heart.

So what is yoga? Yoga is an age-old life philosophy, the practice of which enables us to yoke – to rejoin, unite, and unify – our individual selves with the greater whole. This means different things to different people. For some, yoga enables them to feel closer to the Source, the Greater Intelligence, God. For others, yoga may help to bridge a painful and hard-to-pin-down gap between mind and body, or between the mind-body vehicle and an enduring sense of self, sat-chit-ananda, being-consciousness-bliss.

What I know in my bones is that yoga is more than asana. Yoga is a soft pillow that comes up to meet you wherever you are and helps to carry you that last impossible mile. Yoga is medicine for mind and body. Yoga provides the guard rails on this confusing, emotional, and wild ride called life. Yoga is introspection, pratyahara, and svadyaya, but it is also community, and selfless sharing, and exuberant bhakti! Yoga is everything. And I’m so grateful that I can continue to journey into its depths.

Interesting to read them side-by-side, yes? Does any of it ring true to you? Or have my musings made it all seem more muddled and confusing than ever? What is yoga to you? Please let me know in the comments below.

Hope y’all have a fabulous weekend. The next time you hear from me, I’ll be a Brooklynite! xo

Re-Frame Your Food Sins

I had a bad food day

In my health coaching practice, I read a lot of food journals.

Keeping an account of your eating patterns, complete with accompanying physical and emotional states, can be an invaluable tool in examining your relationship with your mind, body, and plate. But it can be scary to let someone else in on your most vulnerable food moments, and the whole process can stir up quite a few insecurities.

“I had a bad food day.” I hear this one a lot. I hear it from my clients as well as my friends and coworkers. In fact, this sort of language is pretty pervasive. I let myself go. I fell off the wagon. I went to my dark place. I’ve heard people use all of these phrases and more when describing a self-perceived food transgression.

I had a bad food day. One of my clients muttered it with shame as she recounted her previous week. For some reason, it bothered me more than usual. Perhaps it was because this client is one of the most radiant, wonderful women I know, and I couldn’t stand that she would beat herself up for eating a few sweets amid her generally impeccable diet. The phrase just seemed so judgmental, so determinate. It was the last time I ever wanted to hear “I had a bad food day” ever again.

So I gave her an assignment to find a word other than ‘bad’ to describe that day and others like it. Two weeks later she offered an alternative that took my breath away, along with permission to share it here with you.

re-frame the sentiment“I’ve been thinking a lot about freedom and restraint,” she said. “Too much of either is a bad thing. With freedom and restraint, it’s really all about finding a healthy balance. And that’s why instead of saying I had a bad food day, I think I’ll say that I was being free with myself or that I had a free food day.”

She went on to describe that in re-framing the sentence, she was able to re-frame the sentiment. A few indulgences no longer felt like an unforgivable sin, but instead like a necessary and logical counterbalance to the nearly constant restraint she attempts to impose on her diet. And balance is a very good thing.

So if in the coming weeks your relationship with food doesn’t go the way you envision, take a moment to consider the words you use, with yourself and others. For my part, the next time I pair my apple with the better part of a jar of peanut butter (What, me? Never!), I’ll do my best to embrace it as an experiment in being free with myself. This is America, after all. Let’s allow ourselves a little freedom now and then.

 

Why be skinny? Come on and enjoy life!

Wate-On

I saw this old ad a few days ago and kind of fell in love. I dug the cheeky copy, the sexy model (Shannen Doherty?), and the reminder of a bygone era that knew how to celebrate a curvy physique. I almost made it my Facebook cover photo. Almost.

I got so far as to upload it to my profile page. Then I changed my mind.

Because at the end of the day, this ad was making mid-century thin girls feel the same way that I feel when I flip through a high fashion magazine. Like I’m not good enough as I am. Like the only way I’ll ever “enjoy life” is by taking extraordinary measures to change the way my body naturally expresses healthy balance.

Is it important to encourage self-worth in full-figured women who feel abandoned, shunned, and underrepresented by mainstream media? Yes, absolutely.

But we’re missing the point if we think the answer is ousting the thin ideal to reinstate a curvy one.

While diversity in representation is imperative, the larger issue concerns advertisers who objectify the human body in order to manipulate a vulnerable populace into consuming products that promise to “fix” them.

Let’s move towards changing the dialogue completely, wherein the shape of a woman’s body – whatever it may be – is never used against her to make her feel less than whole.

You’re perfect just as you are … and you could use a little improvement

MindBodyPlate Snowflake

You’re perfect just as you are … and you could use a little improvement.

— Shunryu Suzuki Roshi

It’s the 31st day of December, and fluffy snowflakes are beginning to fall outside my apartment window. 2013 is coming to a close, and like so many others, I’m preparing for a night of introspection and champagne.

You’re perfect just as you are …and you could use a little improvement. My teacher shared this zen quote in yoga this morning, and I’ll be taking it with me to the party tonight as my own private mantra, to be remembered in between lively conversations and lighting wish papers on fire.

MindBodyPlate Snowflake 2

On this day when most of us are thinking about resolutions and goal-setting, let us remember to be gentle with ourselves amid self-improvement.

Don’t get me wrong, there’s plenty that I want to work on in 2014. My need for approval and to be “liked” by others has dominated my existence for as long as I can remember. It most definitely played a role in my eating disorder, and I suspect it’s also at the root of what others have criticized as my lack of authenticity. I suppose when you’re living to please everyone but yourself, even the most sincere expression can seen disingenuous.

Now it would be easy for me to say, “THIS is what I’m finally getting rid of in 2014: that damn need to please!” It would be a much greater challenge to softly acknowledge that character trait, observe that it’s not serving me, and then try to love it anyway.

MindBodyPlate Snowflake 3

Yet that’s just what I’m going to do. Because if I condemn this quality that must have served me at some point in my early life, then I’m sending my subconscious the message that there’s something wrong with me. And there isn’t. However, if I can find real love and compassion for the part of me that needs external approval, then it stops the cycle of self-punishment and frees me up to create a more beneficial pattern.

So when you finalize your New Year’s resolutions this evening, I challenge you to acknowledge that you are already perfect just as you are. Cultivate love for those parts of yourself that you perceive to be imperfections. Thank them for helping you navigate the world thus far. And then, sure – set a goal or two. Because all of us perfect souls could use a little improvement.

Happy Thanksgiving!

Happy Thanksgiving from MindBodyPlate! Some thoughts to keep in mind as you join loved ones around the table tomorrow:

  1. Approach every single bite with mindful awareness.
  2. Take periodic breaks to gauge your fullness level on a scale of 1-10 (and decide to stop before 8).
  3. Occasional indulgence is a sign of healthy balance.
  4. Full is not fat. Fat is not bad.
  5. As always, it’s important to cultivate a sense of humor about these things:

Yours Truly expressing a common post-Thanksgiving sentiment, “I’m Not Pregnant, I’m Just Fat” (music & lyrics by Katie Thompson, accompanied by Sean Kana), as a part of my one woman show, Eat Your Heart Out.

No Juice for You!

Orange wedges dropping into water

A few months back, I had the pleasure of visiting my sister in Napa Valley, where she works as a pastry chef in a popular, historic bakery. I spent most of my mornings in the bakery’s café area, mindfully enjoying a cup of tea and a bit of breakfast, perhaps reading or just taking in the sights and sounds of the affluent small town. On one such morning, I witnessed an event so unexpectedly horrific that I still think about it every time I see fruit juice.

A mother (or otherwise maternal figure) walked into the bakery with two healthy boys of about five or six years. They approached the register, at which time the boys noticed an open cooler full of Odwalla juice. “Juice!” they squealed, “Can we get juice?”

Source: State Library and Archives of Florida

Source: State Library and Archives of Florida

“No, we’re not having juice this summer,” the mother replied, “and let me tell you why: it’s filled with sugar. Besides, you don’t want to waste your Sweet Treat before nine in the morning on a drink.”

This piqued my interest. Though she was in a bit of a crabby mood, it seemed that this mother was sharing the logic behind her decision and trusting her boys to understand its nuances. I really appreciated that. I’m also not a huge fan of fruit juice, especially for kids. I continued to eavesdrop, curious to see how she would handle any follow-up questions.

As expected, the boys persisted. They really wanted that juice. She got agitated.

“You need to learn what ‘no’ means. I don’t want to argue with you. This will not be the ‘Summer of Juice.’ Juice is full of sugar, and it’ll make us fat. If you’re going to have juice, it will be fresh-squeezed.”

*record scratch*

Uh…what? Okay, so at this point, I realized that this conversation was no longer about health. It was about aesthetic value. It was about how juice is “bad” and how being fat is also “bad.” This was also the moment I realized this woman might be kookoo bananas, since she somehow believed that fresh-squeezed juice would be less sugary than a 6oz Odwalla (it is not).

Ready to negotiate, one of the boys said, “But we can have a juice now if we don’t have any other sweets today, right?”

“No, no!” she quipped, “Now listen to me.” At this point, she grabbed the face of the other boy, pinching the loose skin underneath his chin between her thumb and index finger, and shaking it for effect.

“Look at this! Look at your brother! We will not be drinking any more juice, because it’ll only add to this [chin] and we are not going to get fat!”

Need I remind you that this was a perfectly healthy pair of young boys? Not even close to overweight. I was mortified. Soon thereafter, they purchased their breakfast (ironically, a bag of carbohydrates – aka SUGAR), and left the bakery. I whipped out my smart phone and transcribed the interaction, still in shock about what I’d just witnessed.

We know better than to believe these creepy old orange juice ads, but we need to be careful about labeling certain foods as “bad.”

We know better than to believe these creepy old orange juice ads, but we need to be careful about labeling certain foods as “bad.”

Food Rules and Weight Gain

There’s no question that we need to address the obesity epidemic in this country. But when will we realize that labeling foods as inherently “good” or “bad” is not the answer?

Look, I typically stay away from fruit juice, and I’ve made the personal decision to cut out refined sugars. Yet, from time to time, my body tells me that it needs some no-sugar-added citrus juice, and I’ll be damned if I ever deprive my body of what it needs ever again. Granted, it took me a long time to suss out the difference between a true need and an emotionally driven craving, but it’s a skill set that we are all capable of achieving.

And though I typically say no to refined sugars, when I’m visiting my pastry chef sister in Napa, California, I will never deny myself a taste of one of her delectable creations, because I know that there is nourishment in such a thing that goes way beyond nutritional value. There’s a term I use in my practice called Primary Food, and it applies to all of the non-food aspects of living that feed our soul, nourish our mental health, and satisfy our hunger for life. Bonding with my sister over her passion is one such example of Primary Food, and I know that it will benefit me more in the long run than abstaining from a few bites of sugary pastry.

I typically don’t eat refined sugar, but when I do, it’s usually for a taste of one of my sister’s delectable creations.

I typically don’t eat refined sugar, but when I do, it’s usually for a taste of one of my sister’s delectable creations.

Restricting food almost always backfires in the end. Research shows that making certain foods off-limits can lead to obsessing and bingeing. In fact, eaters who restrict are more likely to experience cravings and more likely to give in to them. A study published in the journal Appetite demonstrated that the more a mother restricts her young daughter’s access to snack foods, the more snack foods the daughter will eat when given the chance (1).

It’s time to shift the conversation so that it’s about feeling healthy and good in your body, not about a number on a scale or about attaining some kind of saintly dietary perfection. And it begins with us, in our every-day actions and our every-day conversations.

Let’s teach children that too much sugar actually makes you feel pretty gross, in the short term and long. Let’s make it about them feeling good in their bodies. Let’s make it clear that there’s nothing inherently bad about 100% fruit juice, but that it’s a “sometimes” food and not an “all-the-time” food.

The war on childhood obesity may be warranted, but if we continue to tolerate fat shaming and fail to teach moderation, we’re creating a generation of binge eaters.

References:

(1) Fisher, J.O, & Birch, L.L. (June 1999). Restricting Access to Foods and Children’s Eating. Appetite, 32 (3), 405-419. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/appe.1999.0231

When Full Means Fat and Fat Means Bad

Bowl of Almonds

When full means fat and fat means bad,
nourishing your body is a treacherous task.

When full means fat and fat means bad,
an extra helping can make you feel like your own worst enemy.

When full means fat and fat means bad,
Thanksgiving dinner is like navigating a minefield.

When full means fat and fat means bad,
you’d rather miss your best friend’s birthday party than feel bloated in public.

When full means fat and fat means bad,
you can never truly appreciate a shared meal with loved ones.

When full means fat and fat means bad,
the world is a dark, scary place, and recovery seems nearly impossible.

But full is not fat. And fat is not bad.

Full is a signal: my body has had enough. How grateful I am for that satiety cue! How miraculous that I can communicate with my own body in this way, with the trillions of cells which comprise its form. Full can be uncomfortable, but full goes away. So I sit with it. I give it time. I say, “Thank you for the message; I hear you loud and clear.”

Fat is a macronutrient essential to my body’s functioning. It helps me digest and absorb many important vitamins and delivers essential fatty acids that my body can’t make by itself. It helps my cells do their various jobs, promotes healthy skin and hair, maintains my body temperature, allows my neurons to communicate, protects my organs, and helps combat disease.

My body also creates fat as a form of emergency energy storage. What a blessing that my body knows how to care for itself in this way! Sometimes, my body may go a little overboard, but I will never remedy this by depriving myself. Instead, I will help my body feel nourished and balanced. Only then will my body stop preparing for the worst case scenario. So I accept it for what it is. I say, “Thank you for protecting me in this way; there’s no emergency here.”

Sometimes I need to be reminded that being full isn’t the same as being fat, and that “fat” is a term which has been demonized beyond recognition. After all, these are ideas that I learned a long time ago, and those kinds of ideas can be the hardest to change. But if I’ve proven anything to myself it’s that I am capable of remarkable change. So thank you, Fullness. Thank you, Fat. I hear you loud and clear, but there’s no emergency here.

SKF at Window

Dare to Be Scrumptious

Macaroons

“Dare to be scrumptious in your body. It will affect everyone around you.” -J.M.

When my yoga mentor casually declared the above to a class full of eager yogis the other day, she was in the midst of discussing the yogic principle of ahimsa, or “non-harming.” Ultimately, the practice of yoga and ahimsa are one in the same. Though we often challenge our bodies to persevere through uncomfortable poses, our time on the mat is always about ahimsa, never about pushing ourselves to the point of injury. Even amidst challenging poses, says my teacher, it should all feel “yummy” …scrumptious, even.

So when my teacher dared me to be scrumptious in my body, I imagine she was daring me to respect my body’s limitations. To honor what felt good to me, in my body, in that particular moment.

But I couldn’t help interpreting the directive on a much deeper level. Scrumptious, huh? What would it take for me to truly “be scrumptious” in my own body, I wondered. What would that feel like?

I mean, it’s been a major victory just to get to a place of love and acceptance with my body. But I can’t remember the last time I was unabashedly proud of it, like it was the most appealing, appetizing, delicious human form ever. It sounded nice.

Be Scrumptious in Your Body

And then there was that intriguing append: It will affect everyone around you. This made my brain explode a little. I’ve never thought about how my self-image is affecting everyone else – HELLO: I’m too wrapped up in how it makes ME feel! But of course our self-perception affects those around us; we carry it with us everywhere, and it colors our every interaction.Feeling Scrumptious in Your Own Body

When we put ourselves down for not looking or feeling a certain way, we’re unwittingly signaling to those around us that we expect the same from them. On the other hand, feeling scrumptious in your own body gives other people permission to feel the same. It’s the exact opposite of the oppressive monoculture of high fashion and plastic beauty – an all-inclusive celebration of form!

Feeling scrumptious in your body takes guts. Many of us have no practice (80% of American women and up to 97% of women in the UK are dissatisfied with their bodies; somewhat ironically, even Glamour magazine has taken note). And if, like me, you suffer from overvaluing the opinions of others, the prospect of showcasing self-esteem can sometimes paradoxically make you feel more vulnerable, not less (What if someone disagrees with me? Challenges me? Calls me out?).

But you guys… we got this. And once we get started it’ll feel so good, so yummy, so delectable, that it’ll be hard to stop. Remember to start small:

  • When you catch yourself engaging in negative self-talk, start showering yourself with luxurious praise. Yes, out loud if you have to. Yes, even if you don’t believe it.
  • Write yourself a compliment and set it as an alert in your iPhone for some random time in the next week – a delicious surprise for a rainy day.
  • Try experimenting with some self-massage – that coconut oil is good for more than just cooking, ya know.
  • Set a date with your best friend and exchange lists of what you love about each other’s bodies. Declare it a “no negative self-talk zone,” and hold each other to it.

What would it take for you to feel scrumptious in your body today? Do you think anyone would notice? How might it affect those around you – your family, friends, neighbors, and even strangers?

 

 

The Disco Ball Reality Check

Okay, are you guys ready? ‘Cause I’m about to get a little philosophical. You see, sometimes, when I sit for a formal meditation practice, certain visuals help me to center down, so I thought I’d share one with you today.

David Life Quote

Step outside of yourself for a moment and think about the fact that, to a certain extent, “Reality” is what we make of it. Neurologically speaking, the human brain is notoriously fallible when it comes to processing stimuli (just think of your favorite optical illusion). But this is also true on a more subtle, emotional level. The way you perceive a certain event or interaction is bound to be different than the way I perceive it.

Since what you know to be Reality is very much a reflection of you, imagine for a moment that you are some kind of reflective surface. What kind of reflective surface are you? What version of Reality do you reflect back?

source: jasmology.com

source: jasmology.com

When I’m feeling high strung, anxious, agitated, distracted, or overworked, my reflective surface feels like a highly faceted prism, or a broken mirror, or… a disco ball. In those moments, my perception of Reality is rigid, complex, ornate, confusing, and overwhelming. It often feels like there is too much going on: too many thoughts, too many images, and too much to deal with.

So when it’s time for me to slow down and turn off the monkey mind, I like to visualize my reflective surface as a single drop of water. When I do, my perception of Reality becomes far more fluid, simpler. Anxieties seem to wash away, and I begin to feel as though I can see more clearly. Things that were eating me up inside don’t seem to matter so much anymore; in fact, they’re no longer reflected in the big picture.

Dew Drop on Leaf

We cannot change the true nature of things, but we can control our perception of them. Like a multi-faceted mirror distorts the reflection of everything it captures, the ego has a way of making things much more complicated than they need to be. Choosing simplicity and acceptance may not come easily, but things get much easier when you do.

5 Years Recovered

Practice self-care, my friends; this post may be triggering to some.

Journal Entry on Recovery

When I wrote the above journal entry I had been in recovery for two years. It would be another two years and 8 months before I binged and purged for the last time. The road was long, grueling, messy, and confusing, but I made it, and today I celebrate five years recovered from an eating disorder that took 12 years of my life.

This old journal entry really captured my attention, because it sums up what was most challenging about my recovery process: sitting with the discomfort. Of course, at times, “discomfort” couldn’t begin to describe what I was feeling, the skin-crawling, nail-biting, heart-wrenching, head-pounding agony of living in my own skin after eating. I used to imagine digging my fingernails into the couch cushions, into the walls, into anything that would anchor me down and keep me out of the bathroom. There were times when I wanted to die, because it all seemed too painful to bear.

Looking back, it’s no surprise that I had trouble sitting with discomfort, with distress. Studies show that low levels of distress tolerance paired with high levels of urgency can predict bulimia nervosa (Anestis et al., 2007). The paradox of this life-threatening disease is that immediately following a binge/purge episode, bulimics experience a rapid drop in stress and other negative emotions along with a corresponding increase in positive emotions (Smyth et al., 2007). In other words, purging is an effective coping mechanism that makes sense… in the short-term. These reinforcing factors are part of what makes it so hard to beat.

And yet, it’s possible. I’m living proof.

This is not to say that my day-to-day is without struggle. A better marker than years for recovery would be the number of times I’ve felt physical discomfort or emotional pain and chosen to do something other than binge, purge, or restrict my food intake. What a number that would be! That’s how ‘five years recovered’ happens: sitting with one uncomfortable urge at a time.

Dr. G. Alan Marlatt, who was the director of the Addictive Behaviors Research Center at the University of Washington, called this practice “urge surfing,” and he used it with patients suffering from all kinds of addiction, from drugs, to sex, to food (Taitz, 2012). But you don’t need an addiction to use urge surfing; everyone can benefit from mindfully observing the rise and fall of a craving. We all struggle with urges that satisfy us in the short-term but might not be in line with our long-term goals. That makes us human.

Luckily, the intensity of my struggle has diminished with time and practice. I’ve gained a great deal of insight studying Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), mindfulness, and yoga. Each in their own way has helped me cultivate self-empathy and nonjudgmental awareness. I find when I’m able to slow down, notice what’s happening in the present moment, and accept the moment for what it is, I am free to create more beneficial patterns of thinking and behaving. And that is what recovery is all about.

So how do I plan on spending my big day? Well, I’ll start with my favorite yoga class, and I’ll probably end with a meal at my favorite New York City restaurant, Pure Food and Wine. A massage might be in order. More importantly, I’m dedicating this day to embracing each emotion as it comes, the good, the bad, and the not-conventionally-beautiful. Because if I can embrace those emotional waves and ride them with loving kindness, there’s nothing that can stop me.

5 Years of Recovery

References:

  • Anestis, M. D., Selby, E. A., Fink, E. L. and Joiner, T. E. (2007), The multifaceted role of distress tolerance in dysregulated eating behaviors. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 40: 718–726. doi: 10.1002/eat.20471
  • Smyth, J., Wonderlich, S., Heron, K., Sliwinski, M., Crosby, R., Mitchell, J., & Engel, S. (2007). Daily and momentary mood and stress are associated with binge eating and vomiting in bulimia nervosa patients in the natural environment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75 (4), 629-638 DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.75.4.629
  • Taitz, J. L. (2012). End emotional eating: Using Dialectical Behavior Therapy skills to cope with difficult emotions and develop a healthy relationship to food. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.